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Thursday, December 19, 2013

NOW THE SUGAR FREE WILL BECOME WORRY FREE : INSULIN PILL FOR DIABETIS

Happened to read this news.  Thought of sharing it as it will be a boon to many.

LONDON: In a big breakthrough, Indian scientists have done what medical science has been trying to achieve since 1930 - an insulin pill for diabetics.

Since insulin's crucial discovery nearly a century ago, countless diabetes patients have had to inject themselves with the life-saving medicine.

Now Indian scientists have reported a new development toward a long-sought insulin pill that could save millions the pain of daily shots.

Published in the American Chemical Society journal, the advance could someday not only eliminate the "ouch" factor but also get needle-wary — and weary — patients to take their medicine when they should.

For years, researchers have sought a way to transform delivery of this therapy from a shot to a pill, but it has been a challenge.

The body's digestive enzymes that are so good at breaking down food also break down insulin before it can get to work.

In addition, insulin doesn't get easily absorbed through the gut into the bloodstream.

To overcome these hurdles, Sanyog Jain from India's National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research combined two approaches to shield insulin from the digestive enzymes and then get it into the blood.

They packaged insulin in tiny sacs made of lipids, or fats called liposomes, which are already used in some treatments. Then, they wrapped the liposomes in layers of protective molecules called polyelectrolytes.

To help these "layersomes" get absorbed into the bloodstream, they attached folic acid, a kind of vitamin B that has been shown to help transport liposomes across the intestinal wall into the blood.

In rats, the delivery system lowered blood glucose levels almost as much as injected insulin, though the effects of the "layersomes" lasted longer than that of injected insulin.

Diabetes inhibits the production or use of insulin, which is a hormone that helps blood glucose or blood sugar become absorbed into cells and give them energy.

Diabetes is one of India's biggest health challenges. By 2030, India's diabetes burden is expected to cross the 100 million mark, against 87 million estimated earlier.

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body doesn't make enough insulin, and type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn't make or use insulin very well, causing glucose to remain in the blood, which can lead to serious problems.

Libby Dowling, care advisor at Diabetes UK, said "Oral insulin could make a big difference to the lives of people with diabetes. Children, elderly people and those with a phobia of needles would benefit particularly if and when insulin capsules become a safe and effective treatment for the condition. Although more research is needed, Diabetes UK would very much like to see insulin capsules one day become a reality."

She added, "Many people with Type 2 diabetes take diabetes tablets. They are not the same as insulin. As yet insulin cannot be taken in tablet form because it would be broken down in the stomach before it could work. Diabetes tablets work in different ways to lower blood glucose levels - for example by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin, or by helping the body to use the insulin that it does produce more effectively"

Friday, December 6, 2013

Nelson mandela's adieu to the world




    May the great man's soul rest in peace. On this sad occasion, let us remember some of the things that happened in his life.

Nelson Mandela was convicted of sabotage and attempting to violently overthrow the government.
9. During his time in prison, Mandela was restricted to a 2m x 2.5m cell, with nothing but a bedroll on the floor and a bucket for sanitation in it. He was consigned to hard labour in a lime quarry for much of that time and was, at first, only allowed one visitor and one letter every six months.
10. The apartheid government offered to release Mandela on no less than six occasions but he rejected them each time. On one such occasion Mandela released a statement saying: "I cherish my own freedom dearly, but I care even more for your freedom ... What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people [the ANC] remains banned?"
11. Mandela wrote a memoir during the 70s, copies of which were wrapped in plastic containers and buried in a vegetable garden which he kept at prison. It was hoped that fellow prisoner Mac Maharaj, who was due for release, would be able to smuggle it out. But the containers were discovered when prison authorities began building a wall through the garden. As punishment, Mandela's study privileges were revoked.
The ANC was labelled a terrorist organisation by the apartheid government and was recognised as such by countries including the US and Britain. It was only in 2008 that the United States finally removed Mandela and other ANC members from its terror list.
14. The United Nations declared his birthday, July 18, Nelson Mandela International Day. This was the first time the UN dedicated a particular day to a person.
15. Hundreds of awards and honours have been bestowed on Mandela. Among others, he is an honorary citizen of Canada, an honorary member of the British Labour Party, and an honorary member of Manchester United. He also had a nuclear particle (the 'Mandela particle'), a prehistoric woodpecker (Australopicus nelsonmandelai) and an orchid (Paravanda Nelson Mandela) named after him.
 
what a great man he was!
 

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