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if you want to feed the fish, click on the blue background, and the fish come running for the food introduced by you

Monday, August 18, 2014


Where does the disease come from?
Ebola was first discovered in 1976, and it was once thought to originate in gorillas, because human outbreaks began after people ate gorilla meat. But scientists have since ruled out that theory, partly because apes that become infected are even more likely to die than humans.

Scientists now believe that bats are the natural reservoir for the virus, and that apes and humans catch it from eating food that bats have drooled or defecated on, or by coming in contact with surfaces covered in infected bat droppings and then touching their eyes or mouths.

The current outbreak seems to have started in a village near Guéckédou, Guinea, where bat hunting is common, according to Doctors Without Borders.
How does the disease progress?
Symptoms usually appear about eight to 10 days after exposure, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. At first, it seems much like the flu: a headache, fever and aches and pains. Sometimes there is also a rash. Diarrhea and vomiting follow.

Then, in about half of the cases, Ebola takes a severe turn, causing victims to hemorrhage. They may vomit blood or pass it in urine, or bleed under the skin or from their eyes or mouths. But bleeding is not usually what kills patients. Rather, blood vessels deep in the body begin leaking fluid, causing blood pressure to plummet so low that the heart, kidneys, liver and other organs begin to fail.
How is the disease treated?
There is no vaccine or definitive cure for Ebola, and in past outbreaks the virus has been fatal in 60 to 90 percent of cases. The United States government plans to fast-track development of a vaccine shown to protect macaque monkeys, but there is no guarantee it will be effective in humans. The question of who should have access to the scarce supplies of an experimental medicine has become a hotly debated ethical question. Beyond this, all physicians can do is try to nurse people through the illness, using fluids and medicines to maintain blood pressure, and treat other infections that often strike their weakened bodies. A small percentage of people appear to have an immunity to the Ebola virus.
How contagious is the virus?
You are not likely to catch Ebola just by being in proximity with someone who has the virus; it is not airborne, like the flu or respiratory viruses such as SARS.

Instead, Ebola spreads through direct contact with bodily fluids. If an infected person’s blood or vomit gets in another person’s eyes, nose or mouth, the infection may be transmitted. In the current outbreak, most new cases are occurring among people who have been taking care of sick relatives or who have prepared an infected body for burial.

Health care workers are at high risk, especially if they have not been properly equipped with or trained to use and decontaminate protective gear correctly.

The virus can survive on surfaces, so any object contaminated with bodily fluids, like a latex glove or a hypodermic needle, may spread the disease.
Why is Ebola so difficult to contain?
The epidemic is growing faster than efforts to keep up with it, and it will take months before governments and health workers in the region can get the upper hand, according to Doctors Without Borders.
How does Ebola compare with other infectious diseases in the news?
The biggest headlines have tended to involve outbreaks of deadly viruses that medical workers have few, if any, tools to combat. The four most prominent are compared below. No cure is known for any of them, nor has any vaccine yet been approved for human use.

Emerged / identified
1976; latest outbreak in 2014
1967; latest major outbreak in 2005
Originally, Congo Basin and central Africa; latest strain, West Africa
Originally, central Europe; latest major outbreak, Angola
Arabian peninsula
Southern China
Suspected source
Fruit bats, by way of monkeys and other animals
Fruit bats, sometimes by way of monkeys
Bats, by way of camels
Bats, by way of civets
Type of virus
Type of illness
Hemorrhagic fever
Hemorrhagic fever
Respiratory syndrome
Respiratory syndrome
Fatality rate in outbreaks
50% to 90%
24% to 88%
About 30%
About 10%
Known cases
Known deaths
Person-to-person transmission
Readily by close contact or fluids; not by aerosol
Readily by close contact or fluids; not by aerosol
Not very readily; mechanism unclear
Very readily by aerosol, fluids or close contact

Thursday, December 19, 2013


Happened to read this news.  Thought of sharing it as it will be a boon to many.

LONDON: In a big breakthrough, Indian scientists have done what medical science has been trying to achieve since 1930 - an insulin pill for diabetics.

Since insulin's crucial discovery nearly a century ago, countless diabetes patients have had to inject themselves with the life-saving medicine.

Now Indian scientists have reported a new development toward a long-sought insulin pill that could save millions the pain of daily shots.

Published in the American Chemical Society journal, the advance could someday not only eliminate the "ouch" factor but also get needle-wary — and weary — patients to take their medicine when they should.

For years, researchers have sought a way to transform delivery of this therapy from a shot to a pill, but it has been a challenge.

The body's digestive enzymes that are so good at breaking down food also break down insulin before it can get to work.

In addition, insulin doesn't get easily absorbed through the gut into the bloodstream.

To overcome these hurdles, Sanyog Jain from India's National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research combined two approaches to shield insulin from the digestive enzymes and then get it into the blood.

They packaged insulin in tiny sacs made of lipids, or fats called liposomes, which are already used in some treatments. Then, they wrapped the liposomes in layers of protective molecules called polyelectrolytes.

To help these "layersomes" get absorbed into the bloodstream, they attached folic acid, a kind of vitamin B that has been shown to help transport liposomes across the intestinal wall into the blood.

In rats, the delivery system lowered blood glucose levels almost as much as injected insulin, though the effects of the "layersomes" lasted longer than that of injected insulin.

Diabetes inhibits the production or use of insulin, which is a hormone that helps blood glucose or blood sugar become absorbed into cells and give them energy.

Diabetes is one of India's biggest health challenges. By 2030, India's diabetes burden is expected to cross the 100 million mark, against 87 million estimated earlier.

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body doesn't make enough insulin, and type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn't make or use insulin very well, causing glucose to remain in the blood, which can lead to serious problems.

Libby Dowling, care advisor at Diabetes UK, said "Oral insulin could make a big difference to the lives of people with diabetes. Children, elderly people and those with a phobia of needles would benefit particularly if and when insulin capsules become a safe and effective treatment for the condition. Although more research is needed, Diabetes UK would very much like to see insulin capsules one day become a reality."

She added, "Many people with Type 2 diabetes take diabetes tablets. They are not the same as insulin. As yet insulin cannot be taken in tablet form because it would be broken down in the stomach before it could work. Diabetes tablets work in different ways to lower blood glucose levels - for example by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin, or by helping the body to use the insulin that it does produce more effectively"

Friday, December 6, 2013

Nelson mandela's adieu to the world

    May the great man's soul rest in peace. On this sad occasion, let us remember some of the things that happened in his life.

Nelson Mandela was convicted of sabotage and attempting to violently overthrow the government.
9. During his time in prison, Mandela was restricted to a 2m x 2.5m cell, with nothing but a bedroll on the floor and a bucket for sanitation in it. He was consigned to hard labour in a lime quarry for much of that time and was, at first, only allowed one visitor and one letter every six months.
10. The apartheid government offered to release Mandela on no less than six occasions but he rejected them each time. On one such occasion Mandela released a statement saying: "I cherish my own freedom dearly, but I care even more for your freedom ... What freedom am I being offered while the organisation of the people [the ANC] remains banned?"
11. Mandela wrote a memoir during the 70s, copies of which were wrapped in plastic containers and buried in a vegetable garden which he kept at prison. It was hoped that fellow prisoner Mac Maharaj, who was due for release, would be able to smuggle it out. But the containers were discovered when prison authorities began building a wall through the garden. As punishment, Mandela's study privileges were revoked.
The ANC was labelled a terrorist organisation by the apartheid government and was recognised as such by countries including the US and Britain. It was only in 2008 that the United States finally removed Mandela and other ANC members from its terror list.
14. The United Nations declared his birthday, July 18, Nelson Mandela International Day. This was the first time the UN dedicated a particular day to a person.
15. Hundreds of awards and honours have been bestowed on Mandela. Among others, he is an honorary citizen of Canada, an honorary member of the British Labour Party, and an honorary member of Manchester United. He also had a nuclear particle (the 'Mandela particle'), a prehistoric woodpecker (Australopicus nelsonmandelai) and an orchid (Paravanda Nelson Mandela) named after him.
what a great man he was!

Thursday, November 7, 2013

A tribute to Sir C.V. Raman, who produced the Raman Effect.

One of the most prominent Indian scientists in history, C.V. Raman was the first Indian person to win the Nobel Prize in science for his illustrious 1930 discovery, now commonly known as the “Raman Effect”. It is immensely surprising that Raman used an equipment worth merely Rs.200 to make this discovery. The Raman Effect is now examined with the help of equipment worth almost millions of rupees
The Blue of the Sea
When the blue of the sky was thought to be due to the reflection of the sunlight by the sea, it flashed to C.V. Raman that the blue color might be caused by the scattering of the sun’s light by water molecules. Next year he published a lengthy article on the molecular scattering of light.

When a beam of monochromatic light passes through a transparent substance (a substance which allows light to pass through it), the beam is scattered. Raman spent a long time in the study of the scattered light.. On February 28, 1928, he observed two low intensity spectral line corresponding to the incident mono- chromatic light. Years of his labor had borne fruit. It was clear that though the incident light was monochromatic, the scattered light due to it, was not monochromatic.Thus Raman’s experiments discovered a phenomenon which was lying hidden in nature.

The 16th of March 1928 is a memorable day in the history of science. On that day a meeting was held under the joint auspices of the South Indian Science Association and the Science Club of Central College, Bangalore; Raman was the Chief Guest. He announced the new phenomenon discovered by him to the world. He also acknowledged with affection the assistance given by K.S. Krishnan and Venkateshwaran, who were his students.

World-Wide Interest in Raman Effect
Investigations making use of the Raman Effect began in many countries. During the first twelve years after its discovery, about 1800 research papers were published on various aspects of it and about 2500 chemical compounds were studied. Raman Effect was highly praised as one of the greatest discoveries of the third decade of this century.
After the ‘lasers’ (devices that produce intense beams of light, their name coming from the initial letters of ‘Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) came into use in the 1960′s, it became easier to get monochromatic light of very high intensity for experiments. This brought back scientific interest in Raman Effect, and the interest remains alive to this day

Wednesday, November 6, 2013


You Ought to Give Attention!

Please do not ignore the following pains

No. 1: Worst Headache of Your Life
No. 2: Pain or Discomfort in the Chest, Throat, Jaw, Shoulder, Arm, or Abdomen
No. 3: Pain in Lower Back or Between Shoulder BladesSevere Abdominal Pain
No. 4: Severe Abdominal Pain
No 5: Calf Pain
No.6: Vague, Combined, or Medically Unexplained Pains
No.7:  Burning Feet or Legs

As they may be the warning signs of major illnesses.  Kindly consult a doctor and rule out the possibility.  Have a happy and healthy life.

Monday, May 14, 2012

happy mothers day

                                                          Mother’s day message

One mother has patiently given some tips to raise a child. She shares her experiences. Thought it worth publishing so that it will be useful to all mothers.

It is every parents responsibility to help their child with homework and make sure its finished. As soon as my kids get home from school, I set them up for homework time, with each child at his or her own station in the kitchen so that they don't mix up their papers. Then I find something to do in the area so that I'm nearby for help if they need it, but not hovering over them. It's a routine we stick to, so the kids know what's expected of them every day.
When your child has nightmares, here's how to ward off 'monsters': Use a battery-operated handheld fan to chase them away, and fill a spray bottle with 'Go-Away Monster Spray.'

Going through a picture book with beautiful, peaceful pictures can also help. If not the book then lie in bed with your child and ask him/her what they would like to dream about, suggesting pleasant things like sharing an ice cream cone or building a sand castle on the beach. This worked with my daughter, and now she sleeps through the night.
If you feel that your kid is eating too many sweets then here is what you can do.

I serve my kids whatever I plan to feed them for dinner, including a small portion of dessert, all together on those plastic sectioned character plates (Dora the Explorer and SpongeBob are their favorites). Each area has chicken, rice, salad, and a Popsicle, or something similar. Don't bug them to eat the veggies before the treat, but do keep the dessert small enough so they dont fill up on it. Therefore, even if they have dessert first, they will move on to eat a nice amount of dinner.

"When I had a cranky child on my hands, I'd swoop her into my lap and say, "It's time to complain, so let's complain together. Oh, I feel so angry, or hurt, or sad,' hugging her the whole time and letting her be cranky. After a while, she felt soothed and ready to move on. Also, she learned to put words to her feelings."
If its not monsters but the sight of blood that terrifies your child, use dark washcloths to clean up cuts and scrapes. You can also try storing the cloths in plastic bags in the freezer. The coldness will help with pain relief.
Make bath time fun time. "When my kids were babies and it was time to bathe them, I dropped the bottles of soap and lotion into the warm bathwater. That way, when I lathered them up, they felt nice and warm and didn't get a chill."
"I was having problems with my oldest son being rebellious, so I started enforcing family dinner with no TV, no phones, and no guests just our family. We talk about school, homework, and other concerns the kids might have, and sharing these nightly times together has really improved my son's behavior."
"Put the baby bassinet in the living room during the day, especially if you have other children. Your baby will become accustomed to the noises, and then she'll be able to take a nap anywhere! When we adopted Angelia, we were making over our bedroom, so we had to put her bassinet in the living room. But it worked out great, because now she can sleep through the other kids playing and watching TV. A well-napped child is happier and makes for a happier mom too!"
"My daughter is very social, and she's at that age when her friends are on a revolving loop. I never know who's in and who's out. When she's down in the dumps because a girl at school doesn't like her, I'll ask her about another girl who I've noticed she's treated poorly. I comfort her too, but I want her to truly be aware of her responsibility: Being a good friend is more valuable than any amount of popularity."

Story of mother’s sacrifice during Japanese earthquake
When the rescuers reached the ruins of a young woman's house, they saw her dead body through the cracks. But her pose was somehow strange that she knelt on her knees like a person was worshiping; her body was leaning forward, and her two hands were supporting by an object. The collapsed house had crashed her back and her head.
With so many difficulties, the leader of the rescuer team put his hand through a narrow gap on the wall to reach the woman's body. He was hoping that this woman could be still alive. However, the cold and stiff body told him that she had passed away for sure.
He and the rest of the team left this house and were going to search the next collapsed building. For some reasons, the team leader was driven by a compelling force to go back to the ruin house of the dead woman. Again, he knelt down and used his had through the narrow cracks to search the little space under the dead body. Suddenly, he screamed with excitement," A child! There is a child! "
The whole team worked together; carefully they removed the piles of ruined objects around the dead woman. There was a 3 months old little boy wrapped in a flowery blanket under his mother's dead body. Obviously, the woman had made an ultimate sacrifice for saving her son. When her house was falling, she used her body to make a cover to protect her son. The little boy was still sleeping peacefully when the team leader picked him up.
Happy mothers day to all.

Thursday, March 1, 2012

Solar power - The perennial source of energy put to little use.

Hi bloggers,

It has been a long time since I met you all.  Thought of returning with a useful subject relevant to the current scenario.  Hence the topic.

Why should you be considering using solar power? What are the benefits for you or for the environment?
The use solar energy dates back since the human existence on earth. Recent years we have understood the importance of solar energy in our life. The uses of solar energy has increased because of its sustainability, less maintenance and cost effective in long run.

Residential Purpose

Use of Solar power for homes has number of advantages. The use of solar power appliances is one of the best ideas to cut the expenditure on energy. The solar energy is also used in residential homes for heating the water with the help of solar heater. The photovoltaic cell is been installed on the roof of the residents to collect the solar energy and is used to warm the water. Solar energy can also be used in producing the electricity. Batteries will store energy captured in day time and supply power in night.

Commercial and industrial purpose

Solar energy is frequently used to power the radio and TV station as it is reliable, renewable, affordable, and need less maintenance. Solar energy is also used to supply power to lighthouse and warning light for aircraft. It is also used in office, warehouse and industry for power supply generated through solar energy. The solar energy is also used in major industries for providing power for manufacturing process.

Solar energy is becoming increasingly popular because it is sustainable, requires little maintenance and is cost-effective in the long run. Typically, solar energy is captured and converted into electricity via photovoltaic (PV) cells. There are also larger solar power plants that collect the heat from the sun, which is subsequently used to produce steam for powering a generator
Other uses
  • In many parts of the developing world solar energy is harnessed to pump water in remote areas. Solar energy is also used to power off-grid desalination plants.
  • Because it is renewable, relatively affordable, very reliable and requires little upkeep, it is also used to power lighthouses, buoys and aircraft warning lights on buildings and other structures.
  • Solar energy can be used to heat residential homes; many people use solar energy to heat their water supply and, particularly in Florida, their swimming pools as well. A photovoltaic cell is installed on the roof to collect solar energy and is used to warm a heat transfer fluid that is used to heat the water itself.
  • Increasingly, solar energy is being used to power public transportation vehicles such as buses, trolleys and light-rails. Plans for solar-powered bus shelters are in the works as well.  

One blogger has blogged about the use of solar energy to a common man.  It is worth mentioning here in his own words.
Here is the one from El Paso Solar Energy Association.

This one is more permanent and can produce over 3 gallons of distilled water every day in the summer and about half that in the winter. With reflectors, you could bring that up. You could also just use more distillers to meet your demand.

This one is a Poor Man's design using a cardboard box with a lid. The box has a black plastic bag or just black plastic inside it. There is a brick on the bottom for a glass to sit on. The lid has loose fitting clear plastic put in the cutout. A rock is put in the center of that to weigh it down. The dirty water is at the bottom no deeper than the brick height. This will help minimize the risk of contaminating your clean glass with dirty water. The dirty water evaporates and then condenses up on the clear plastic. The angle of the plastic makes the clean water drip down into the clean glass. This should be great for emergencies.

The following video demostrates  How to develop a 60watt solar panel.

Now about the  news I came across which will be very useful to my readers and ultimate users
Lighting up lives: File photo of
Harish Hande, Managing Director
of Selco Solar Light Pvt Ltd and
a winner of the Ramon
Magsaysay award for 2011
Dr. Harish Hande, a US educated IIT ian who won last year's Magsaysay award for his 17 year old social enterprise (SELCO Solar electric Light Company) has brought about solar lanterns, panels, water heaters or cookers which can be readily bought and used by the rural poor household.  His customers are farm labourers, semi and unskilled workers, agarbatti rollers, basket weavers and migrants. 
They did it on a monthly income of Rs.1500 and on easy bank loans. His firm employs an innovative business model that relies on cost effective grassroots distribution network to deliver affordable electricity on a pay-as-you-go basis to Indian shops, households and schools to power their everyday socio-economic activity.

This renewable source of energy can be put to use in a great way to save our earth. 

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